Lists of age of acquisition for sounds in speech and common phonological processes are listed below: 


Sanders ( 1972) Norms for Speech Sound Mastery

(Concerns arise when the child passes the age of acquisition and cannot produce the sound

or has numerous errors making speech less than 50% understandable in conversation)


Age 3:  p, m, w, n, h

Age 4:  b, d, k, g, y (as in yes), f

Age 6:  t, l, r, ng

Age 7:  j (as in jump), ch, sh, th (unvoiced as in think)

Age 8:  v, th (voiced as in the) s, z

            (zh is mastered later than 8)


Common Phonological Processes (Should not persist beyond age 5):


Final consonant deletion:                    says “ba”  instead of “ball”

Syllable reduction:                             says “nana” instead of “banana”

Vowelization:                                     says “ca” instead of “car”,  “penso” instead of “pencil”

Gliding:                                              says “wed” instead of “red”, says “syide” instead of “slide”

Cluster Reduction:                              says “boom” instead of “broom”

Doubling:                                           says “ho-ho” for “horse”, says “wa-wa” instead of “water”

Initial Consonant Deletion                   says “all” instead of “ball”

Backing (not a common process):         says “gog” instead of “dog”

Fronting:                                           says “tat” instead of “cat”

Glottal Replacement:                          say “ba-tub” for “bathtub”


Speech Sound Activities You Can Do At Home


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